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little al 03-05-2008 08:20 AM

Things you have learnt today
 
I have just learnt that the Chinese play rugby. It is the national sport of the Chinese army apparently.

Ant.Palace 03-05-2008 08:39 AM

The average 4 year old asks 437 questions a day. mine asks 437 questions an hour.

Maidstoned Eagle 03-05-2008 08:40 AM

That our play list doesn't have songs on it that it should have.

Jules 03-05-2008 08:54 AM

20/20 vision means you have normal sight - that is, you can see from 20 yards away what the average person can see from 20 yards away.

Someone with 20/10 vision would have excellent sight.

beef 03-05-2008 08:54 AM

calling 3-bets out of position is usually a bad idea

hoopsmccan 03-05-2008 09:04 AM

:rolleyes:

Nelson Muntz 03-05-2008 09:05 AM

That the ARC car wash opens at 8am.

t_appletart 03-05-2008 09:11 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Jules
20/20 vision means you have normal sight - that is, you can see from 20 yards away what the average person can see from 20 yards away.

Someone with 20/10 vision would have excellent sight.

Thats the american version. In England, we say 6/6. if they have excellent vision,then its 6/5

celery stick 03-05-2008 09:12 AM

That Boris Johnson hasn't had a drink for three months.

Eye-dee 03-05-2008 09:16 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by t_appletart
Thats the american version. In England, we say 6/6. if they have excellent vision,then its 6/5
So what's a big 10/4 then :confused:

hoopsmccan 03-05-2008 09:18 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Eye-dee
So what's a big 10/4 then :confused:
Going big camping in?

Maidstoned Eagle 03-05-2008 09:18 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Eye-dee
So what's a big 10/4 then :confused:
Nowhere near as good as a 10/13

t_appletart 03-05-2008 09:22 AM

i thought 10/4 was cop talk for understood?

Eye-dee 03-05-2008 09:23 AM

Is it 'learnt' or 'learned'?

Maidstoned Eagle 03-05-2008 09:23 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by t_appletart
i thought 10/4 was cop talk for understood?
CB

Eye-dee 03-05-2008 09:24 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by t_appletart
i thought 10/4 was cop talk for understood?
But it was on that record Convoy, "That's a big 10/4 good buddy..."

jone-zee 03-05-2008 09:28 AM

Breaker Breaker Freddy Laker

t_appletart 03-05-2008 09:30 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Eye-dee
But it was on that record Convoy, "That's a big 10/4 good buddy..."
no idea. nowt to do with eyes though :)

Eye-dee 03-05-2008 09:33 AM

Anyway what I have learnt/learned today is that waiting for the paperboy to turn up makes me spend too much time on here :D

:hi:

Maidstoned Eagle 03-05-2008 09:36 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Eye-dee
Anyway what I have learnt/learned today is that waiting for the paperboy to turn up makes me spend too much time on here :D

:hi:

perv

Maidstoned Eagle 03-05-2008 09:40 AM

http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=xdc0Oq1VwH4

BLOCK B BILL 03-05-2008 10:29 AM

keep your friends close,but your enemies closer

Adlerhorst 03-05-2008 10:31 AM

If you get Kiehl's Facial Fuel Energising Scrub in your eyes it stings like an absolute bitch for at least two hours.

rbarmy 03-05-2008 10:33 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Eye-dee
Is it 'learnt' or 'learned'?
Interchangeable but 'learnt' is generally British compared to the US who tend to use 'learned'

Eye-dee 03-05-2008 10:43 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by rbarmy
Interchangeable but 'learnt' is generally British compared to the US who tend to use 'learned'
:eek: It's learnt then ;)

SIKO 03-05-2008 10:52 AM

That when changing the bedding with you wife, it has to be done a cerain way or it WRONG

Maidstoned Eagle 03-05-2008 10:57 AM

How about when doing a radio show, if you haven't played your other half a record in the first 2 hours of the show its proof positive that you don't love her.

cupid stunt 03-05-2008 10:58 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Maidstoned Eagle
How about when doing a radio show, if you haven't played your other half a record in the first 2 hours of the show its proof positive that you don't love her.

:D

Ant.Palace 03-05-2008 11:17 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by SIKO
That when changing the bedding with you wife, it has to be done a cerain way or it WRONG
:D

Aberdeen Babe 03-05-2008 11:30 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Maidstoned Eagle
How about when doing a radio show, if you haven't played your other half a record in the first 2 hours of the show its proof positive that you don't love her.
You played Sarahs within 5 mins:love:

Maidstoned Eagle 03-05-2008 11:33 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Aberdeen Babe
You played Sarahs within 5 mins:love:
Don't tell Lynsey that, I'm in enough trouble as it is.

little al 03-05-2008 11:35 AM

Sorry on the normal computer now, AB's post was me. She is on a flounce cos of something Chocky said on another thread.

little al 03-05-2008 11:35 AM

Did you not have Lynseys tune?

Pidster 03-05-2008 11:36 AM

I have learnt never to give my mobile number, to a well-upholstered, cardy-wearing, ginger haired, Tory voter.

Maidstoned Eagle 03-05-2008 11:40 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by little al
Did you not have Lynseys tune?
Yes, she's not as fussy as you.

Tea Boy 03-05-2008 11:41 AM

That you don't see many white dog shits anymore cos people have stopped feeding their dogs bones.

little al 03-05-2008 11:43 AM

I have learnt that although Lynsey gets the correct tune played, she has to wait until she hates ME

Barbara4003 03-05-2008 11:59 AM

I have learnt that a guinea pigs bite is very painful :sob:

I learnt this having decided to cut her nails for her - she did not appreciate the gesture :(

Al From Bromley 03-05-2008 12:03 PM

I have learnt that there is a business phrase 'open the kimono' which means to open a company's book for inspection or expose something previously hidden.

mrgins 03-05-2008 02:21 PM

that its going to rain hard all ••••••• day

Sick Bucket 03-05-2008 02:29 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by Barbara4003
I have learnt that a guinea pigs bite is very painful :sob:

I learnt this having decided to cut her nails for her - she did not appreciate the gesture :(

I cut a toe off of one of my guinea pigs trying to do this - she didn't appreciate that much either.

Big Gav 03-05-2008 02:30 PM

From the ticket thread i've learnt that some Palace fans are complete arseholes

GodstoneEagle 03-05-2008 02:31 PM

That pulling faces at babies is the easiest way to stop them crying. Even if after a while it makes your eyes hurt.

Eye-dee 03-05-2008 04:30 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by Sick Bucket
I cut a toe off of one of my guinea pigs trying to do this - she didn't appreciate that much either.
:eek:

foetus eagle 03-05-2008 04:48 PM

Brothers Edward, Clarence, and Thomas Scott began selling some kind of toilet paper from a push cart in Philadelphia in 1867. (I have been unable to determine what sort of paper this was or where they obtained it, but I assume it was not rolled, perforated paper-they most likely would not have had the means to manufacture it and I could find no record of other companies making it at that time.) In 1879, Edward and Clarence Scott founded the Scott Paper Company (the third brother, Thomas, went into the publishing business instead). Scott toilet paper was sold in rolls that were, apparently, unperforated in the early years. In addition, the company did not market their products under the Scott brand initially-not wanting to, ah, soil the family's good name.


*China…AD 1391 - The Bureau of Imperial Supplies began producing 720,000 sheets of toilet paper a year, each sheet measuring two feet by three feet. For use by the Emperors.
*USA…1857 - New Yorker Joseph C. Gayetty produced the first packaged bathroom tissue in the United States in 1857. The Gayetty Firm from New Jersey produced the first toilet paper named "The Therapeutic Paper". It contained an abundance of aloe, a curative addition. The company sold it in packs of 500 sheets for fifty cents, and Joseph Gayetty had his name printed on each sheet!
*USA…1890 - The Scott Paper Company is the first company to manufacture tissue on a roll, specifically for the use of toilet paper. Faced with the consumers' resistance toward the "unmentionable" product, Scott came up with the idea of customizing rolls for every merchant-customer they had. Under this private-label arrangement, Scott purchased large "jumbo" rolls of paper from various paper mills and converted them into packages of small rolls and stacked sheets.
*Great Britain…1880- British Perforated Paper Company

>> When was the first roll of toilet paper made and by whom? <<

Scott Paper Company marketed the first rolls of toilet paper. The Company was founded in 1879 by brothers E. Irvin and Clarence Scott in Philadelphia and specialized in producing toilet paper. At first they purchased paper and tissue from outside suppliers and cut, rolled and packaged the paper. They converted large parent rolls of tissue into small rolls and stacked sheets and began to market the product through drug and variety stores under private label names. Then, in 1896, Irvin's son Arthur joined the company at the age of 21. He convinced his father and uncle to phase out their private label business and concentrate on their own brand names. With this, Scott purchased the private label name Waldorf from a Philadelphian 'paper jobber' named Albert DeCernea in 1902 and began producing this as their first brand name. As sales grew, it became evident that production changes were necessary to guarantee consistency. In 1910, Scott bought an abandoned soap factory in Chester, 5 miles south of Philadelphia for $85,000 and began making their own parent rolls of tissue, 72" wide at 150-200 feet per minute instead of buying from others. Rolls were sold with either 650 or 1,000 perforated sheets. In 1915, Scott installed an advanced, high-speed Fourdrinier papermaking machine. It made paper 148" wide at 500 feet per minute. In 1921, their brand, Waldorf represented 64% of Scott's total case sales. By 1925 Scott became the leading toilet paper company in the world. (On July 17, 1995 Scott was acquired by Kimberly Clark)

>> Early Marketing <<

The roll did not easily fit into the consumer market at first. At the time, society did not speak of the subject frequently. It was quite 'unmentionable" to talk about this product in the conservative, Victorian era. However, during this time indoor plumbing was improving and the public had a desire for better hygiene.

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>> An early advertisement <<

Scott advertisements were suggesting that "over 65% of middle-aged men and women suffered from some sort of rectal disease". Inferior toilet paper was deemed to be responsible. It was printed in Scott advertisements that "harsh toilet tissue may cause serious injury". The ad said " ScotTissue, Sani-tissue and Waldorf are famous bathroom tissues specifically processed to satisfy the three requirements doctors say toilet tissue must have to be safe: absorbency-softness-chemical purity". Each sheet, it said was made of "thirsty fibers." Scott tissue was made from the finest ingredients and "they are neither acid nor alkaline in reaction. Each sheet is fully sterilized in manufacture" it read.

>> The first paper roll towel- the ScotTowel. <<

There is a story that in 1907, a teacher in Philadelphia blamed a mild cold epidemic on the fact that students used the same cloth towel. So she cut up paper into squares and used them as individual towels. Around that time Scott was experimenting with a new type of crepe tissue. It was so thick that it couldn't be cut and rolled into toilet paper. So Arthur Scott ordered it to be made into rolls of towels and perforated into individual 13" x 18" sheets. This was called the Sani-Towels. Advertisements said, " For use once by one user." Success was helped by states that outlawed the use of cloth-roll towels because of spreading disease.

>> What did people use before toilet paper was invented? <<

*Newsprint, paper catalogue pages in early US
*Hayballs, Scraper/gompf stick kept in container by the privy in the Middle Ages
*Discarded sheep's wool in the Viking Age, England
*Frayed end of an old anchor cable was used by sailing crews from Spain and Portugal *Medieval Europe- Straw, hay, grass, gompf stick
*Corn cobs, Sears Roebuck catalog, mussel shell, newspaper, leaves, sand- United States
*Water and your left hand, India
*Pages from a book, British Lords
*Coconut shells in early Hawaii
*Lace was used by French Royalty
*Public Restrooms in Ancient Rome- A sponge soaked in salt water, on the end of a stick
*The Wealthy in Ancient Rome-Wool and Rosewater
*French Royalty-lace, hemp
*Hemp & wool were used by the elite citizens of the world
*Defecating in the river was very common internationally
*Bidet, France
*Snow and Tundra Moss were used by early Eskimos

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>> How was the first newsprint manufactured? <<

The first newsprint was created from linen and rags. The rags were bought in bulk and treated for hours before being used in the newsprint production..

>> How did Kimberly Clark begin making newsprint? <<

In 1872, Charles Benjamin Clark, a 28 year old Civil War veteran and partner in the local Neenah, Wisconsin hardware store, recruited John A. Kimberly to join him in building a paper mill. Kimberly, Clark & Co. started their Globe Mill in Wisconsin. It was the first mill in Wisconsin to make newsprint out of linen and cotton rags. Women sorted the rags by hand for purity. Buttons and other hard substances were cut off. Then the rags were cut up by machines and boiled in large vats for 14 hours. After the boiling process, the rags were steamed, pressure-washed and rinsed for five hours. The rags were then bleached. Afterwards they were drained, and "beaten" to reduce the stock to a pulp. Bleaching chemicals were added for whiteness. To attain the consistency that was needed, the pulp was transferred through tubes and valves. Eventually, it was pumped into the containers of the papermaking machine. The 72" sheets then were made to pass through two different rolls: a copper steam-heated drier roll (which eliminated excess water) and a polishing roll, which gave it a finish. The final product was divided into squares, packaged in volume, and shipped to vendors. It sold for $.14 per pound.

>> When did Kimberly Clark begin making newsprint paper from wood? <<

The Atlas Paper Co., was established in 1878 by the four Kimberly Clark & Co. partners and three local businessmen.in Appleton, Minnesota. The company experimented with new papers and new equipment. It specialized in fancy manila wrapping paper, bond paper, box paper and achieved a reputation for innovative products (including toilet paper) and processes. It was the first mill in the state to produce paper made largely from ground wood pulp. Previously, newsprint was made from rags.

>> When was Kotex introduced? <<

In 1916, Kimberly Clark began concentrating oncreped wadding paper. This was five times more absorbent than cotton and could cost half as much. With the war in Europe provoking cotton shortages Kimberly Clark developed a thin form ofcreped cellulose they trademarked "Cellucotton." This was adapted for use as a filter in gas masks and bandages. The product was also being used by nurses as sanitary pads during menstrual periods. "American women wore a diaper of bird's-eye or outing flannel, which they were obliged to wash and reuse." In 1920, K-C began producing "Cellu-Naps," a sanitary napkin made of Cellucotton and fine gauze. The name was changed to Kotex and trademarked on September 21, 1920. For $.60 a customer received 12 napkins packaged in a "hospital blue" box.

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>> What was the original marketing of Kotex? <<

Society's prim attitudes made it difficult to market sanitary napkins. In fact, a decade earlier, in 1896 Johnson & Johnson's produced a feminine pad made of cotton and gauze. The product never succeeded because of the turn-of-the-century morality that made advertising of the product impossible. In 1920, Kimberly Clark worried about their image organized a different company to market Kotex, just in case it failed. The company was named Cellucotton Products Company. Stores would not carry the product and magazines would not advertise. Sales were not good. But in 1921 K-C decided to 'stay in for the long haul'. By 1925 the product was beginning to gain acceptance. In 1926 Montgomery Ward advertised Kotex in their catalogue and millions of women began to use and accept sanitary napkins as a way of life.

>> When was Kleenex introduced? <<

Kimberly Clark first introduced Kleenex to the market in 1924 as a cold cream or make up remover. Because of the lackluster sales of Kotex in the early 1920's, the Cellucotton Products Company had an overabundance ofcreped wadding. They 'ironed' the wadding, cut it and made it softer. Initially, it was to be marketed as a cleaning towel, but because of the focus on the American women marketplace, the decision was made to market the tissue as a cold cream remover. In 1925 Ladies Home Journal advertised Kleenex as a way to keep skin beautiful. A K-C executive that suffered from hay fever was using these tissues instead of his handkerchief. In 1927 he influenced a new ad that said "for colds, never again use handkerchiefs". In 1929, the Kleenex Pop-Up box was first introduced. It remains the number one brand of facial tissue in the world.

>> Who invented the Flushing Toilet? <<

The flushing toilet was invented in 1596, not by Thomas Crapper as most people think, but by Sir John Harington. Harington, a British nobleman and godson of Queen Elizabeth I, invented a valve that when pulled would release water from a water closet. Sir John recommended flushing the toilet once or twice a day, although with our modern technology, we know that is probably not sufficient. (Rumor has it that, in Robin Hood's day, King Arthur - angry with how his brother ruled the country while the King was gone, named fair toilette, 'the john' - AKA as 'the Jon' to you folks.)

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>> Did Thomas Crapper invent the toilet? <<

No. Although from 1861 to 1904 Crapper did have a successful career in the plumbing industry, holding nine patents for plumbing-related products in England, he did not invent the toilet. Albert Giblin holds the 1819 British Patent for the Silent Valveless Water Waste Preventer, a system that allowed a toilet to flush effectively. Giblin worked for Crapper as an employee and the most likely scenario is that Crapper bought the patent rights from Giblin and marketed the device himself.

>> What does the word "toilet" mean? <<

Deriving in 1828, the original meaning of toilet, or toilette, is of French origin meaning the "act of washing, dressing, and preparing oneself". As the years went by, the word evolved into actually being the room or facility in which one arranges their toilet. In modern days, toilet refers to the plumbing fixture that one might use in the "bathroom", with "bathroom" now describing the facility one would go to for the purpose of using the toilet or lavatory.

>> Why is a bathroom often called the "toilet"? <<

" According to bathroom historian Frank Muir, the toilet and/or the outhouse have at one time or another been called the House of Honor (by the ancient Israelites), the House of the Morning (by the ancient Egyptians), the garderobe (literally, "cloakroom"), the necessarium, the necessary house, the reredorter (literally, "the room at the back of the dormitory"), the privy (that is, the private place), the jakes, the john, the loo, the W.C. (for water closet), room 100 (in Europe), the lavatory, the closet of ease, and many other things. In addition to euphemisms, needless to say, there is also an abundance of vulgar expressions Curiously, however, there is no "real" word for the place where one deposits one's bodily wastes. 'Toilet,' which is now thought of as the "official" term, is itself a euphemism-originally, toilet was the process of dressing, as in, "the lady has just completed her toilet." Before toilet assumed its present meaning in the early twentieth century, the accepted technical term for the "john" was the vaguely disgusting, but still euphemistic "bog-house."

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>> Who was the first "soft" two ply toilet paper producer? <<

St. Andrew's Paper Mill in Walthamstow, London, is responsible for giving the world the comfort of soft toilet paper in 1942. Before then, many brands were single-ply and not at all pliable.

>> Who built the first papermaking machine? <<

In 1798, a Frenchman named Nicholas Louis Robert invented a machine to make paper in continuous rolls rather than sheets. The Fourdrinier brothers, who were English merchants, financed improvements in this machine in 1803. The first American Fourdrinier machine was built in 1827.

>> What is Kraft paper? <<

In 1883, a German inventor named Carl Dahl discovered that adding sodium sulfate to the soda process produced a very strong pulp. This discovery produced the Kraft process. Kraft means strength in German. During the early 1900's, the Kraft process became the most important pulping process.

>> When did "wood" paper production begin? <<

Paper production from wood did not actually begin until the late 1800s.

>> II Toilet paper facts <<

>> What is the difference between 1 ply and 2 ply? <<

As it states 1 ply is a single layer of tissue where 2 ply is two layers. That does not mean however, that 2 ply is twice the thickness. 1 ply is made of a 13# thickness paper versus 2 ply is made of 2 layers of 10# thickness paper. Manufacturers do not simply 'double up' the 1 ply in order to make 2 ply.

>> Which is cheapest, 1 or 2 ply? <<

1 ply is generally cheaper to use. People use about the same amount of sheets but they are actually using less paper because it's 1 ply, therefore it's cheaper to use. The price of a roll of 1 ply (1,000 sheets per roll) is usually a bit more then rolls of 2 ply (500 sheets per roll). But there is twice the amount of useful sheets on a roll of 1 ply. Also, it depends who is using it! That is why you hear, 'one ply lasts longer!'.

>> Is there a pre-moistened toilet paper? <<

Yes. Kimberly-Clark announced on January 16, 2001, the launch of Cottonelle Fresh™ Rollwipes - America's first and only dispersible, pre-moistened wipe on a roll. Cottonelle Fresh Rollwipes will initially be available in early Summer 2001 to consumers in northeastern and southeastern states, representing approximately half of the U. S. population. The pre-moistened roll will require a special sealed unit dispenser to be offered in a starter pack (dispenser along with four rolls). The pre-moistened product is dispensed from a sealed unit at the top of the dispenser. Dry toilet paper is dispensed from a conventional spindle at the bottom of the dispenser. The dispenser is easily installed in a bathroom - no tools are required and it fits most toilet paper holders. Go to www.rollwipes.com to view this new innovation. >> How can you get confused when you buy toilet paper? <<

Check how many sheets are on a roll! Standard industrial rolls have 500 two ply or 1,000 one ply sheets per roll. However, some rolls have only 200 sheets. Plus, check the size of the sheets. They can vary up to 15%. A standard size is 4.5"x4.5". Some are as small as 4"x3.8".

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>> What is the best way to buy toilet paper? <<

Buy toilet paper by the case from www.ToiletPaperWorld.com and put it in a closet. We sell the industrial full-sized rolls. It is the product you just do not want to run out of. You might find that on any given day there is a special price offer on a special toilet paper at your grocery store. But be careful! How many sheets on a roll? Don't get fooled! Is it the quality you like? Get a case and tuck it away. You will be happy you did. You'll never run out.

>> What is the size of a sheet of toilet paper? <<

This is important. The size of a sheet of toilet paper may vary from one manufacturer to another. The standard size is 4.5" x 4.5". However, in the last 10 years manufacturers have come out with "cheater sheets". These can run as small as 4" x 3.8"! This means about 15% less paper. So don't be confused by the advertisement that says "our roll of toilet paper is the cheapest". It may be that theirs has less sheets and smaller size sheets.

>> How many sheets are on a roll? <<

Industrial rolls of toilet paper have 1,000 per roll of one ply and 500 per roll of two ply. Recently manufacturers are making jumbo size rolls with 2,000 sheets. These require special large dispensers and are good for public use bathrooms because they last longer. The consumer market has lots of different size rolls. This confuses you. Some rolls only have 200 sheets!. Some of the sheets are smaller than the standard industrial size of 4.5" x4.5". I've seen sheets as small as 4'x 3.8". Be careful. Small rolls have to be changed more often and generally do not cost less. Don't get fooled!.

>> Which toilet paper is the best? <<

The softest, strongest and most absorbent. New technologies are making tissue softer by blowing air into the manufacturing process and 'puffing' up the tissue. This is nice but you also need 'wet strength'. By adding chemicals to the process a tissue becomes stronger and will not just fall apart when it hits water. This is of course important but this wet strength element takes away the softness feature. So a good combination is what the manufacturer tries to achieve. You are the decision maker. I like soft. Thick is not always the softest or most absorbent..

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>> How many rolls are in a case? <<

This varies. 96 rolls are in most of the industrial size cases. Half size cases are more convenient for storage, 48 rolls per case. Sometimes there are 24 rolls per case. Today there are all sorts of bulk pack sizes available. Just be sure to look at 'how many sheets on a roll!' I've seen some toilet paper with only 200 sheets per roll! Don't get fooled.

>> Which toilet paper is best for septic systems, recreational vehicles and boats? <<

All toilet papers today break down well in the septic system. However, thinner is better. 1 ply will break down easier and is best in recreational vehicles and boats.

>> What is a jumbo roll? <<

Toilet paper is now being made on giant size rolls (1,500 sheets/roll ). This is for the industrial and public bathroom. A larger roll means less changing and less 'running out'. They require special larger dispensers. This is a very convenient way to save time and money.

>> What else is toilet paper used for? <<

Packaging material, eyeglass wiping, nose care, hair-do's, make-up remover, toilet seat covers, industrial wipers ( tp is very absorbent ).


>> Who are the major manufacturers in the US? <<

Kimberly Clark, Georgia Pacific, Fort James, Marcal, Procter & Gamble.


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>> How was toilet paper used in the Desert Storm War? <<

The military used toilet paper to camouflage their tanks in Saudi Arabia, during the Desert Storm War.

>> What is the "Toilet Paper Tax"? <<

In 1996, President Clinton passed a law on toilet paper, taxing each roll 6 cents and increasing the price of the product to 30 cents per roll. The price of toilet paper has not been this costly since the Desert Storm War in 1990.

>> What is "tissue"? <<

Tissue is a general term indicating a class of papers of characteristic gauzy texture, in some cases, fairly transparent. Tissue papers are made on any type of paper machine, from any type of pulp, including reclaimed paper stock. They may be glazed, unglazed, or creped, and are used for a variety of purposes. Examples are primarily sanitary grades such as toilet, facial, napkin, toweling, wipes, and special sanitary papers. Desirable characteristics are softness, strength, and freedom from lint. There are also waxing, wrapping, and miscellaneous non-sanitary grades.

>> The pentagon uses…? <<

"The pentagon uses, on average, about 666 rolls of toilet paper every day."

>> How much tissue/tissue products are produced each year? <<

Approximately 5.8 million tons of tissue grades, consisting of toilet and facial tissue, paper napkins, towels, diapers, and various other sanitary products are produced in the U.S. annually. In 1992, approximately 3.5 million tons of scrap paper was used to manufacture these products. (Ame. Forest and Paper Association)

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>> General Paper Facts <<

FBy Recycling 1 ton of paper you save:
F17 trees 6953 gallons of water
F463 gallons of oil
F587 pounds of air pollution
F3.06 cubic yards of landfill space
F4077 Kilowatt hours of energy

>> How much does the average roll of toilet paper weigh? <<

The average roll weighs 227 grams, including the cardboard core tube. This is just over half of a pound.

>> What are the measurements of a standard sheet of toilet paper? <<

The measurements are 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches per sheet

>> What does it mean for toilet paper to be "hypoallergenic"? <<

When toilet paper is "hypoallergenic", it means that it is unlikely that this particular product will cause an allergic reaction and contains no inks, dyes, or perfumes.

>> How is toilet paper ranked in popularity among mass merchandisers? <<

Across the food, drug and mass merchandiser outlets, bathroom tissue is ranked third among all non-food product categories. (Bathroom Tissue State of the Category)
*Mass merchandisers, in particular, have aggressively promoted larger package sizes of leading premium brands to capture a share of the $4.1 billion bath tissue category. (Bathroom Tissue State of the Category)

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>> How many days does the standard roll of toilet paper last in a household bathroom? <<

The number of days a standard roll of bath tissue usually lasts in the most-used bathrooms in the house is five, according to Charmin customers.

>> What is the average number of toilet tissue sheets a person uses in one day? <<

On average, consumers use 8.6 sheets per trip - a total of 57 sheets per day. That's an annual total of 20,805 sheets. (Charmin)

>> What is wet-strength? <<

Normally, paper loses most of its strength when saturated with water, and one which retains more than 15% of its dry-strength when completely saturated with water may be correctly referred to as "wet-strength paper". (Etherington & Roberts)

>> What makes toilet paper soft? <<

During the drying process, the toilet paper sheet is adhered to one large steel cylinder to dry and is then scraped (or "creped" off) by a metal blade. "Creping" imparts flexibility and stretch into the sheet, while lowering the strength and density, resulting in soft tissue products. (Georgia-Pacific)

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>> How does tissue texture make a difference in cleanliness? <<

KLEENEX COTTONELLE- "cushy ripple" tissue, a product designed to enhance the clean, fresh feeling
It is said the texture is the result of the patented technology that dries the tissue during the manufacturing process without compressing or embossing it. "This method, designed to clean better, permits the tissue to hold its rippled shape when wet," it added. (Kimberly-Clark)

>> III The Environment <<

>> How many consumer products will one cord of wood yield? <<

*1,000 pounds of toilet paper, or…
*30 Boston Rockers, or
*12 dining room tables (each table seats eight), or
*7,500,000 toothpicks, or
*460,000 personal checks, or
*89,870 sheets of letter head bond paper (size 8 ˝" s 11"), or
*61,370 standard #10 envelopes, or
*14,384,000 commemorative-size postage stamps, or
*1,200 copies of the National Geographic, or
*2,700 copies of the average daily paper (35 pages), or
*250 copies of the Sunday New York Times, or
*942 one-pound books, or
*the heating value of one ton of coal, or
*the heating value of 200 gallons of fuel oil

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>> What is recycled paper? <<

Recycled paper is paper that contains fiber from waste paper. However, there is no universal agreement on the exact definition of this. The Paper Users' Environmental Forum Checklist states that recycled paper should include as high a proportion of post consumer waste fiber as possible. Post consumer waste is paper that has already been used for its final and intended purpose. Recycling paper is not only collecting wastepaper, but also using paper with recycled contents. Toilet paper with high-recycled content is neither expensive nor difficult to obtain.

>> How is recycled paper made? <<

Recycled paper, either pre or post-consumer materials needs to be washed and is often deinked prior to being pulped. The pulp goes through a bleaching process to make it whiter. There are many bleaching processes; New Leaf Paper chooses a processed chlorine free process. Once the pulp is bleached, it enters a series of phases including the following: the paper forming section; the press section where water is removed by pressing the wet paper between rolls and felts; and the drying section where the moisture content is reduced to the desired level; and the calendering section where the paper is compacted and smoothed progressively as it travels down a stack of steel rolls. After completion, the paper is stored in either rolls or cut into sheets.

>> Is recycled paper cheaper than non-recycled paper? <<

No. Recycled paper can actually be more expensive to manufacture, and therefore possibly more expensive in price. Originally recycled paper was noticeably inferior to non-recycled paper, however today that gap has closed considerably and in many cases you cannot tell the difference. Today some brands come automatically with recycled content. Request a grade chart from the resource page for more information.

>> Does using and producing recycled paper help save our natural resources? <<

In the early 1970s, an EPA study for Congress concluded that using one ton of 100% recycled paper saves 4,100 kwh of energy (enough to power the average home for six months) and 7,000 gallons of water. It also keeps more than 60 pounds of pollution out of the air and saves 3.3 cubic yards of landfill space, which is increasingly important as many local landfills near their capacity. Paper industry representatives have actually estimated that one ton of recycled paper saves approximately 17 trees.

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>> Which paper manufacturers have the highest recycled paper utilization rate? <<

Tissue manufacturers have one of the highest recycled paper utilization rates in the paper and paperboard industry; over 60 percent in recent years. That means that tissue manufacturers require 60 tons of recovered paper for every 100 tons of tissue paper produced.

>> What is Paper Recovery? <<

Paper recovery is the practice of collecting paper for recycling or some other end use (such as composting). The recovery is accomplished in many ways. The most visible method is residential curbside recycling programs, which collects a variety of paper types generated by households. However, the majority of recovered paper originates from the business and industrial sectors. About 20 percent of all paper recovered is "preconsumer" paper. (paper that never reaches consumers). Pre-consumer paper is generated by sources such as converters (businesses that take rolls of paper and convert them into finished products) and printers (e.g., misprints and overruns). In 15 years, the U.S. paper recovery rate has nearly doubled from approximately 25 percent in 1985 to almost 50 percent. Some grades are highly recovered; for example, old corrugated containers (OCC) has a 70 percent recovery rate.

>> What is "kenaf" and how is it used in papermaking? <<

Kenaf is a fibrous plant used as an alternative to wood for papermaking. Because kenaf contains less lignin than wood, less chemicals and energy are required to turn it into pulp. It also required less bleaching, so, it's easier to bleach without chlorine. Kenaf has long fibers, which are a positive addition to the recycling stream. Related to hibiscus, kenaf is a fast-growing plant that can be harvested annually over several months, then compressed and stored for up to four years. It yields far more fiber per acre than a comparable-size tree plantation.

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>> Who produces the largest source of tree-free paper? <<

One of the most complete sources for tree-free paper is the Oregon-based Fiber Options Paper Company catalog. Owner Karen Wood points out that plants like kenaf produce four times as much fiber per acre per year as trees, and that the plants' shorter fibers also make them more easily recyclable. "You can also recycle tree-free paper right along with your wood-based paper," she says.

>> Are there papermaking companies that actually use all paper alternatives for their production? <<

Fiber Options offers paper made from organic cotton (envelopes and letterhead, produced without using bleaches or dyes); kenaf (greeting cards, writing paper, toilet tissue, stationery); blends of hemp, straw, cotton and flax (letterhead, copy paper); and bamboo (heavy paper and cardstock). Wood plans to add handmade Native American paper, created from a variety of fibers, next spring. Fiber Options is also adding Arbokem paper from Canada, which uses pulped wheat straw (which is usually burned, creating pollution) as a base, combined with post-consumer waste.

>> How can hemp be used to make toilet paper? <<

Both the fiber (bast) and pulp (hurd) of the hemp plant can be used to make toilet paper. Fiber paper was the first kind of paper, and the first batch was made out of hemp in ancient China. Fiber paper is thin, tough, brittle, and a bit rough. Pulp paper is not as strong as fiber paper, but it is easier to make, softer, thicker, and preferable for most everyday purposes. The toilet paper we use most today is a `chemical pulp' paper made from trees. Hemp pulp toilet paper can be made without chemicals from the hemp hurd. Most hemp paper made today uses the entire hemp stalk, bast and hurd. High-strength fiber paper can be made from the hemp baste, also without chemicals. According to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, one acre of hemp can produce 4 times more paper than one acre of trees!

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>> What other resources are good substitutes for wood in the production of paper? <<

Paper is now produced from kenaf, hemp, wheat straw, banana stalk, organic cotton, sugarcane, even denim scraps and recycled U.S. currency.

>> What is Kraft paper? <<

In 1883, a German inventor named Carl Dahl discovered that adding sodium sulfate to the soda process produced a very strong pulp. This discovery produced the Kraft process. Kraft means strength in German. During the early 1900's, the Kraft process became the most important pulping process.

>> How is Recycled Kraft Paper used? <<

Sensitivity to the environment on the part of more and more people makes them willing to try this grade of paper. It has successfully been used as newspaper bottom wrap, toilet tissue, garment underlay paper, textile wrappers, interleavers, internal carton packaging, void filler, dust covers and box/tray liners. Other uses include bundling and stuffing.

>> How was the newsprint manufactured? <<

The first newsprint was created from linen and rags. The rags were bought in bulk from Chicago and Milwaukee, and treated for hours before being used in the newsprint production.

>> How was the rag stock made into paper? <<

The rags were dissected by stripping machines, and boiled in large vats for over twelve hours. After the boiling process, the rags are steamed, pressure-washed and rinsed for five hours. The rags are then bleached, drained, and "beaten" to reduce the bleaching chemicals and turn it into pulp. To attain the consistency that is needed, the pulp is transferred through tubes and valves. Eventually, it is pumped into the containers of the papermaking machine. The sheets that are made pass through two different rolls: a copper steam-heated drier roll and a polishing roll. The final product is divided into squares, packaged in volume, and shipped to vendors.

>> What is the term "Mill Broke" referring to in the papermaking industry? <<

Paper mills collect their internal paper and pulp waste and reuse it in other paper making processes. The waste is known as mill broke. Paper made from it is technically not recycled paper at all as it has never previously reached the public.

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>> What is the difference between Thermo-Mechanical Pulping and Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Pulping in the papermaking process? <<

Thermo-Mechanical Pulping (TMP) is a variation on the process that softens the wood chips with steam before they are ground, leaving more whole fibers intact. Its use is effectively limited to softwoods, whereas Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Pulping (CTMP) extends the process to hardwoods by running sulfur-based chemicals through the wood before steaming. These techniques are ingenious and effective, except that chemicals removed from wood and organic sulfur compounds are often simply discharged by the mills directly into the ocean. Such emanation can be effectively treated and made safer through special processes, but it is only recently that paper manufacturers have begun to incorporate these processes into their routines.

>> How do you make paper from toilet paper? <<

· First, here's how to make paper:
· You need toilet paper, liquid starch, a bowl, a screen, a cookie sheet, a towel, and a heavy book.
· Tear the toilet paper into the size of a stamp. Keep at it until you fill about three-fourths of the bowl.
· Pour the liquid starch in. Cover a lot of the toilet paper.
· Mix the toilet paper and the starch with your hands. Mix it very well.
You can add glitter and/or little pieces of paper to make it look nice.
· Go outside. Pour the mix on the screen. Spread it into the shape of paper you want.
· Take the screen inside; put something on it that will absorb the starch like towels or newspaper.
· Put a heavy book on top of it to press it down.
· Wait 24 hours. By then it should be done.

>> How much money does the paper product industry generate each year? <<

The forest and paper products industry generates $200 billion in sales annually, and is a chief exporter for the United States.

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>> How much of the world's trees are cut down for paper manufacturing? <<

Paper manufacturing accounts for 28% of all of the trees that are cut down. More trees are planted every year than are chopped down. On an average, when a tree is harvested for making paper, five more are planted in its place.

>> How many paper mills exist in the United States? <<

There are more than 500 paper mills in the United States.

>> Can we expect a growth in U.S. paper consumption? <<

Yes. Worldwide paper consumption is projected to expand 46 percent by the year 2040.

>> When did "wood" paper production begin? <<

Paper production from wood did not actually begin until the late 1800s.

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>> Which type of tree is grown for paper production? <<

Most softwood trees used for paper come from forests called "managed timberlands". Even though the trees in these timberlands may look like "woods," they are an actual agricultural crop - like vegetables on a farm. The trees are grown primarily for being made into paper products for consumer use.

>> Will we run out of trees if we continue to cut them down for the production of all of the world's toilet paper? <<

No. More trees are planted every year than are chopped down. This is due in most part to the success of "managed timberlands". Trees are a renewable resource. As long as we manage timberland and plant trees to replace the ones cut down, trees will continue to grow and grow forever. On an average, when a tree is harvested for making paper, five more are planted in its place.

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>> If "saving" trees isn't the issue, why do we want to recycle paper? <<

Paper is one of the few consumer products that is fairly easy to recycle. It can be made into many new products including corrugated boxes, packaging, newsprint, toilet paper, and writing paper, among other things. Helping to reduce the amount of paper in landfills is the most important task. Since each of us uses an average of 700 pounds of paper products per year, paper makes up almost a third of the material that goes into landfills. This is the main reason we should recycle paper!

>> Does most of the paper manufactured in the U.S. come from whole trees? <<

No. Over half of the raw material used to make paper in the U.S. comes from recovered paper and the wood waste (such as wood chips and sawdust) left behind from lumber manufacturing.

>> After the papermaking process is complete, how big is a finished roll of paper? <<

A finished roll of paper can measure up to 30 feet long and weigh as much as 20 tons! The most efficient paper plants can produce over 1,000 miles of paper a day!

>> What is Dioxin and how is it found in paper? <<

Dioxin, a bleaching byproduct, is one of the most toxic human-made chemicals known. Once released into the environment, it is persistent because natural bacteria cannot effectively break it down. "Dioxin" is often used as a catchall term for three acutely toxic chemical groups: true dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It is found throughout the pulp and paper manufacturing processes, its wastes and even in the paper products themselves.

>> Are there toxins, such as Dioxide, in chlorinated toilet paper? <<

Yes. Many pulp and paper mills use chlorine-based chemicals to bleach pulp white. These chemicals react with organic molecules in the wood and other fibers to create many toxic by-products, including dioxin. Chlorinated toilet paper contains the highest amount of furans out of all cosmetic tissues. When we buy toilet paper bleached with chlorine, we support pulp and paper mills that pollute our environment with dioxin and other toxic organochlorines.

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>> What are the long-term physical effects of Dioxin in the environment? <<

· Cancer occurs in humans at only 10 times the dioxin level now in our bodies, on average.
· Behavioral effects and learning disorders occur in monkeys at only 10 times the dioxin level now in our bodies.
· Decreased immune responses occur in monkeys and mice at 25% BELOW the dioxin level now in our bodies.
· Decreased male sex hormone occurs in humans at only 1.3 times the dioxin level now in our bodies.
· Diabetes occurs in humans at only 10 times the dioxin level now in our bodies.
· Sperm loss occurs in humans at only 10 times the dioxin level now in our bodies.
· Endometriosis occurs in humans at only 10 times the dioxin level now in our bodies.


>> When did the chemical Dioxin become such a huge problem in the environment? <<

Dangerous dioxin contamination has been part of our world only since the turn of the century--tests for dioxin in lake sediments and tissues of ancient humans show much lower levels of dioxin than seen in current generations. It entered our environment in significant amounts with industrial expansion and the post-World War II explosion of the chlorine and petrochemical industries.

>> Who is in the most danger of being exposed to the bleaching agent, Dioxin? <<

Some of us are at much higher risk. For instance, the following people may be exposed to higher dioxin levels:
-People who eat a lot of fish
-Workers involved in incineration operations
-Workers producing and handling pesticides
-Workers at wood treatment facilities using pentachlorophenol
-Workers in the bleach plant at pulp and paper mills
-Fire fighters and people exposed to some industrial accidents and toxic waste sites
-Nursing infants
-And people exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.

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>> How can "chlorine-free" toilet paper make a difference in our environment? <<

Paper bleached with chlorine has huge environmental costs, and U.S. paper manufacturers are now making important decisions about how to change this. A switch to oxygen-based chlorine-free bleaching can eliminate dioxin pollution from pulp and paper mills. Mills are now deciding whether to invest in this totally chlorine-free technology, or a different process, "elemental chlorine-free" bleaching--which still uses a form of chlorine and still produces dioxin. Both processes are allowed by the new rules drafted by the Environmental Protection Agency called the "Cluster Rules". The outcome of these decisions will have a profound impact on our environment and our health.

>> What other bleaching options do toilet paper manufacturers use for their products? <<

Bleaching can also be accomplished by other methods. Many mills now use chlorine dioxide, which produces less dioxin, but still pollutes our waters with many other organochlorines, and still has effluent so toxic that it causes genetic damage in fish even when it is very diluted. The best bleaching option for the environment is oxygen-based, without any chlorine chemicals. This includes "totally chlorine-free" and "processed chlorine-free" bleaching. These methods use oxygen, ozone or hydrogen peroxide to bleach the pulp. Initially it costs more to switch a mill to oxygen-based bleaching, but the operating costs are lower, which helps recover this investment in the long run. Hydrogen Peroxide can also be substituted for Chlorine in the bleaching process of paper, as well.

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>> Which bleaching process is the most popular among toilet paper manufacturers and consumers? <<

Elemental Chlorine-Free (ECF) pulp, bleached with chlorine dioxide, continues to dominate the world bleached chemical pulp market. By the end of 1999, ECF production reached 48.5 million tons, totaling more than 62% of the world market share. ECF is, by far; the most environmentally preferred paper worldwide.

>> How will I know if I am buying unbleached, environmentally safe toilet paper? <<

The paper industry has recognized the consumers'' interest in getting chlorinated chemicals out of the bleaching process. You will be able to choose the right paper, made without ANY chlorine, if you remember just a few simple terms:
· "UNBLEACHED"- Recycled Papers that have NOT been re-bleached
· "PROCESSED CHLORINE-FREE"- Recycled papers bleached with oxygen, ozone or hydrogen peroxide instead of chlorine chemicals
· "TOTALLY CHLORINE-FREE"- Non-recycled papers bleached with oxygen, ozone or hydrogen peroxide instead of chlorine chemicals
· "ELEMENTAL CHLORINE-FREE"- Papers bleached with chlorine dioxide instead of chlorine gas. These chemicals still contain chlorine, so this process still produces dioxins!

>> What are the Paper Mill Cluster Rules? <<

The Paper Mill Cluster Rules are a set of rules drafted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recently signed into law, which attempt to address dioxin pollution in water, air and solid waste from pulp and paper mills. It requires all mills to eliminate their use of chlorine gas in the bleaching process. The use of elemental chlorine-free bleaching (chlorine dioxide) is still allowed.

>> (Jamie Patterson) has posed the long sought after question of, "Which way should the roll be placed on the roller?" "To pay off from the top or bottom?" <<

Kenn Fischburg, president of www.ToiletPaperWorld.com answers, "Many hotels install the toilet paper to pay out from over the top in order to make a nice pointed triangle on the end sheet. This points out to the user that someone cleaned the bathroom and paid attention to the 'finer' details. However, others feel that in a public facility it is best to install to pay out from underneath. In this way the dispensing and tearing is more controlled and therefore less people will touch the roll of paper, therefore less cross contamination. Also, keeping the paper closer to the wall by dispensing from underneath provides a 'cleaner less intrusive' environment, especially in close quarters. Some dispensers have a top cover that helps the user pull and tear the paper. In this case the roll should be dispensed from the top allowing the user to 'pull up' on the paper and tear it easily. So, it depends on the dispenser, the location and the facility. However, the simple concern about the installation of the roll may have a deeper meaning and may be indicative of a different issue in the personality of the user. This question remains one of the most frequently asked.

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>> II Complete Historical Timeline <<

Papermaking and toilet paper important dates. Origin of paper is usually attributed to the Chinese. Early Egyptians made writing paper from papyrus. The Romans supplemented this with parchment.
50BC the Chinese made paper first with short lengths of bamboo and later added cotton linen rags which were soaked in water and pounded into swollen pulp. This was then formed into sheets and dried
105 A.D. Ts'ai Lun, a Chinese court official, has his name linked to the invention of paper. In all likelihood, Ts'ai mixed mulberry bark, hemp and rags with water, mashed it into pulp, pressed out the liquid, and hung the thin mat to dry in the sun.
Before toilet tissue- wealthy Romans used wool and rosewater and sponges soaked in salt water at the end of a stick. Wealthy French used lace, wool and hemp. In the Middle Ages they used hayballs and a scraper/gompf stick kept in a container in the privy. Early Americans used rags, newsprint, paper from catalogs, corncobs, and leaves. Vikings used lambs wool. Hawaiians used coconut shells. Eskimos used snow and Tundra moss. A bidet is used in France. Defecating in the river is very common. Cleaning with the left hand and water is common in India. Sailors used the frayed end of an old anchor line.
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8th century Arabs were known to make writing paper and were the first to use linen in the process.
12th century Spain, France & Italy had papermaking mills.
13th century Germany had papermaking mills.
14th century England recorded locations for papermaking mills. Rags were the principal raw material and they were in short supply, thus limiting growth.
TP-1391 the first toilet paper reported used by the Chinese emperor. The paper was made in 2 ft x 3-ft sheets. The Bureau of Imperial Supplies began producing 720,000 sheets of toilet tissue per year.
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1596- Flushing Toilet invented- by Sir John Harrington a British nobleman and godson to Queen Elizabeth I. He invented a valve that when pulled would release the water from the water closet. Sir John suggested flushing at least twice a day. Rumor has it that this is where the name the "john" originated. In 1819 the Silent valve was patented by Albert Giblin in England. This allowed a toilet to be flushed more efficiently. Albert worked for Thomas Crapper who had a successful plumbing business. It is most likely that Thomas bought the patent from Albert and then marketed the toilet successfully. (Toilet is a French word meaning 'the act of washing, dressing and preparing oneself')
Renaissance Europe 1400-1600 paper was in demand by the educated and elite society. Paper became an essential commodity. But the demand was too great for the supply at the time. Rags were the principal raw material and in short supply.
1648 Crane - Henry Crane emigrates from England and settles in Dorchester, Massachusetts. His great-grandson, Stephen Crane, is the first in the family to become a papermaker.
1690 William Rittenhouse and William Bradford of Germantown PA built the first North American papermaking mill at Wissahickon Creek, near Philadelphia that used rags as the raw material. Rags were boiled, rinsed, and beaten to a pulp, then pressed to get the water out and dried to become paper. Thanks to a great deal of imagination and hard work, they successfully collected, separated, cleaned, and recycled old cloth rags to make America's first writing. a) Among the many picturesque acres of Philadelphia's Fairmont Park, there is a rare and unique treasure known as Historic RittenhouseTown. It is the site of America's first paper mill, established in 1690 by Wilhelm Rittenhausen. Today, 7 buildings remain, dating from the early 18th century until the end of the 19th century, including a barn which houses our papermaking studio, the original Rittenhouse Family Homestead, and the original Rittenhouse Homestead Bakehouse. The site is open to the public and offers many exciting programs that enrich interest and awareness of this important National Historic Landmark and all it has to offer. The paper mill structure no longer exists. The mill building was taken down sometime after Fairmount Park took control of the site in the late nineteenth century. In the mid-1990s Historic Rittenhouse Town Inc. hired archeologists to search for the site of the mill. The base of the second mill has been located and Historic RittenhouseTown Inc. hopes eventually to be able to expose part of the base of the mill and include this in historical interpretation of the site.
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TP-1700 Colonial Americans used corncobs and leaves to cleanse with where toilet tissue is used today. When newspapers became available they were used. Also, the Sears catalog and the Farmers almanac were used. The Almanac had a hole in it so it could be hung on a nail or string. French Royalty used lace.
1716 Hemp was first used in an experiment as a raw material for paper making in Europe.
1750 Holland- the first mechanical rag beater was developed called the Hollander. It was a tube with a revolving roller inside that passed over knives. This cut the rags up for pulping.
1775 US first paper money- Stephen Crane sells currency-type paper to engraver Paul Revere, who prints the American Colonies' first paper money. Revere's transaction is on display in the Crane Museum.
1791 Rags needed in US- The Second congress of the US passed a resolution calling on the people for rags to keep the infant papermaking industry alive. Rags were deemed in short supply. Alexander Hamilton reported later that year that supply of rags was adequate.
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1798 Rolls made instead of sheets- Nicholas-Louis Robert of France invented a machine that produces paper on an endless wire screen. The Frenchman patented the idea of matting the fabric fibers and joining the sheet on a moving wire belt through which excess water could drain away. His machine would make continuous rolls rather tan sheets. It became the Fourdrinier. Fifty years later, papermakers began successfully using wood fiber to make paper, a process that was introduced in the United States in the early 1900s.
1800 Matthias Hoops published a treatise on papermaking written on paper made from straw, leaves, wood and other vegetable products.
1801 Crane 1801- Crane is founded by Zenas Crane, Henry Wiswall and John Willard; the original one-vat mill has a daily output of 20 posts (1 post = 125 sheets). Crane runs its first newspaper ad, asking ladies to save their household rags for papermaking.
1803 The Fourdrinier brothers in England improved the Nicholas Louis Robert continuous roll papermaking machine and made the Fourdrinier papermaking machine, which is still the heart of the paper and pulp industry
1810 a US census reported 179 mills in 17 states with an output of 3,000 tons. But the supply of rags was not sufficient to fuel the growth and demand for paper. European imports of rags became very expensive.
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1815 European papermakers were flooding the US with exports of paper and rags and making high profits because of the lack of supply of rags in the US. This hurt the US papermaking industry.
1819 Flushing toilet -the Silent valve was patented by Albert Giblin in England. This allowed a toilet to be flushed more efficiently. He worked for Thomas Crapper who had a successful plumbing company. He probably bought the patent from Albert and marketed the toilet device himself from 1861 to 1904.
1820 a US census reported only 108 mills in operation compared to 179 ten years earlier.
1820- The newly invented cylinder-mould machine replaces hand-forming. In Boston, Governor Strong uses Crane paper for executive proclamations and state documents.
1822 US tariff was implemented to help the papermakers in the US. From here on the industry grew steadily into its world dominance of today.
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1840 Mechanical Process for making wood pulp- the development of the wood grinder for making groundwood now called pulp. This process grinds the wood in revolving grinders. There is little chemical change and the resulting pulp contains practically all the original cellulose constituents of the original wood. This pulp is cannot be bleached and is used where color is unimportant such as newsprint.
1844 Money Paper- Crane patented a method to embed silk threads into banknote paper to foil counterfeiters. The direct descendant of this idea can be seen in the embedded security thread in today's U.S. currency. It was patented in 1991 by Tim Crane, a member of the sixth generation
1854 Wood pulp first used- practical results of making paper from wood pulp were first obtained. Mechanical wood pulp or groundwood, as the new pulp was called, was used to supplement the supply of rags, and the mixture of rags and wood pulp produced a paper suitable for the times.
1856 Corrugated boxes- in 1856 the English started to use corrugated paper for sweatband linings in stovepipe hats. Albert L. Jones, a New York City inventor, in 1871 was the first to use corrugated as a packing material, for shipping kerosene-lamp chimneys and other glass. Goodbye sawdust and straw. Over the next two decades cardboard evolved into today's familiar sandwich, corrugated stuffing between two layers of linerboard. * see note below
Late 19th Century- The public's demand for better hygiene coincided with improvements in residential and commercial indoor plumbing.
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TP-1857 First Toilet Tissue introduced by New Yorker, Joseph Gayetty. The Gayette Firm located in New Jersey produced and sold a package of 500 sheets selling for $.50 and was named "Therapeutic Paper" and was a medical paper. It contained aloe for helping to cure sores. Joseph's name was printed on each sheet.
1866 Sulfite Pulping Process- In 1866, an American named Benjamin Tilghman developed the sulfite pulping process. This process used sulphurous acid to dissolve the liqueous constituents of wood, leaving a residual of cellulose fibers. The first mill using this process was built in Sweden in 1874. This was the dominant pulping process until 1937.
1870 Groundwood mills- there were eight ground-wood mills in the US. Mills were mostly in New England because of large supplies of spruce pulpwood. In the 1890's mill were being erected in the Lake States region because of the supply of spruce and balsam.
1870 Fine stationary- Elegant women's stationery from Europe becomes the rage in America. Zenas Crane Jr. travels to Europe to learn the techniques. Soon, Tiffany, Bailey, Banks & Biddle, Marshall Field's and Shreve, Crump & Lowe all carry Crane stationary paper.
1872 Kimberly Clark established to make newsprint- Charles Benjamin Clark, a 28-year-old Civil War veteran, recruits John A. Kimberly, Havilah Babcock and Frank Shattuck to build a paper mill in Wisconsin. They began producing newsprint from linen and cotton rags, on Oct.22. Rags were cut up by machines and boiled for 14 hours. Then the rags were steamed, pressure washed and rinsed for 5 hours. The rags were then bleached, drained and then beaten to make pulp. More bleaching added whiteness.
1873 Thin bible paper- W. Murray Crane receives a challenge from Winchester Arms Co. of New Haven, Connecticut, to develop a strong, thin wrapping for repeater rifle bullets. The lucrative contract carries Crane through the recession of the 1870s. Other innovations around this time include a substitute for parchment or sheepskin for diplomas and special thin paper for Bibles.
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1874 Scott Paper Company established in Philadelphia, PA. By Scott bothers Thomas, Irvin, Clarence and their cousins Thomas Seymore and Zerah Hoyt.
1878 American Paper Makers Association- API, American paper institute was first formed as the American Paper Makers Association in 1878. Five years later, it was reorganized and renamed the American Paper Manufacturers Association. A wood pulp division was added in 1887, and 1897, the organization was again renamed-this time as the American Paper and Pulp Association (APPA), a name that lasted 66 years.
1879 - US currency competition- W. Murray Crane wins heated competition for U.S. currency paper. He later becomes Governor of Massachusetts and U.S. Senator.
1880 there were 40 ground-wood mills in the US.
1880 Great Britain- The British Perforated Paper Company produced toilet paper.
1882 Sweden- Sulfite pulping process - first used the sulfite pulping process on a commercial basis.
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1883 Sulfate pulping process makes Kraft Paper- first made by German inventor Carl Dahl. He discovered that adding sodium sulfate to the caustic soda pulping process produced a very strong pulp. This was called the Kraft process. Kraft means strong in German. During the early 1900's the Kraft process became the most important pulping process. Kraft paper makes paper bags and heavy wrapping. The kraft process had several distinct advantages: the chemicals used to dissolve the lignin were recoverable and tremendous amounts of energy were produced during the recovery process, and the process could pulp pine trees, a predominant forest species in the United States. The Kraft process allowed the United States to become a major producer of paper products
1890 The Sulfite Process commercially used in US to make pulp- the manufacture of sulfite wood pulp was first commercially accepted in the US. This is cooking wood chips in an acid, chiefly bisulfite of lime, at high temperature and high pressure. This pulp can be bleached white. Sulfite pulp is very stable and the bleached pulp is good for writing, tissue, book and wrapping papers as well as food containerboard. Unbleached sulfite pulp is used in newsprint
Late-19th Century- Many paper mills turn to wood pulp instead of cotton fibers. Crane does not alter its production, feeling its role is to continue to make fine rag paper.
TP-1890 Toilet Paper on a roll was introduced by the Scott Paper Company and quickly becomes the nation's leading producer of TP. Scott bought large rolls of paper from paper manufacturers and then converted them to become TP on a small roll. The TP was sold through intermediaries, private labelers and drug stores. Scott private labeled the wrappers and cut the paper according to the specification that each reseller wanted. Scott did not want to be associated with this Victorian era "unmentionable" product. The owners did not want their name on the product. The strategy worked and Scott expanded. Scott had over 2,000 reselling customers.
TP-1896 Arthur Scott joins the company. He argues that controlling their own brand and product specifications is the best strategy rather than selling through resellers.
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1900 The Soda process to make pulp- Soda pulp mills were erected in the US. This is cooking wood chips in caustic soda. This is chiefly used in treating short-fibered hardwoods such as aspen, gum, and poplar. Soda pulp is primarily mixed with sulfite pulp to make printing papers.
1900-end of World War II the US suffered from over capacity. After WW II expansion took place.
TP-1902 Scott paper buys the private-label Waldorf TP brand. The Waldorf brand was a big seller in Philadelphia by a paper jobber, Albert DeCernea. Arthur Scott, the son of Irvin convinced his father that Scott paper should control their own brands and product specifications. Scott therefore bought this private label. This began their first venture into controlling their own brand. By 1921 the Waldorf brand was 64% of Scott's sales.
TP-1901 Northern Paper Mills from Green Bay Wisconsin is established and introduces Northern tissue to be used as a sanitary tissue. It is 1,000 sheets of tissue, each 4x10 inches. Each bundle has a wire through it so it can be hung from a nail.
1904 over 1,300 wood grinders were in operation in the US. Over 300 digesters produced sulfite pulp and over 200 digesters produced soda pulp.
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1907 Scott introduces paper towels. The Sani-towels became the first disposable paper towel in America used in Philadelphia schools to help prevent the spread of common colds.
TP-1910 Scott begins to manufacture its own toilet paper. In order to control the standards and quality of the tissue, Scott built its own first manufacturing plant in Chester PA to make paper. They began making large 72" parent rolls of tissue and cutting them to smaller rolls. The small rolls were either 650 or 1,000 perforated sheets. The roll of 1,000 sheets sold for $.10. It was considered a medical item.
1910 The Sulfate process to make pulp- first appeared. This helped the US papermaking industry make pulp from the domestic southern pine located in the Southern states instead of importing pulp from Canada. This process is used to pulp long-fibered woods. It is a modification of the soda process where sodium sulfite is substituted for caustic soda. It accelerates the pulping process and requires less heat and pressure.
1910 papermakers imported large quantities of wood pulp from Canada because of supply demands.
TP-1911 Scott eliminates all private-label manufacturing. Scott's 'Sno-tissue was renamed ScotTissue. This marked the beginning of the complete concentration on Scott brands and Scott Tissue. They no longer sold through resellers.
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1915 Sanitary napkins- Kimberly Clark begins producing absorbent cellulose wadding called Cellucotton. This is to be used as a bandage material in WW1. Army nurses begin adapting this material for menstrual use.
1918 Cellucotton as gas filter- Kimberly Clark prepares to sell Cellucotton for use in WW I, but the war ends. The project later leads to the development of Kleenex.
1919 Fort Howard Paper Company established in Green Bay Wisconsin.
1920 Kotex introduced by Kimberly Clark. KC forms the company Cellucotton Products to market Kotex sanitary napkins. The KC Company owners are afraid to associate with this 'unmentionable' product. Kotex is first advertised in 'Ladies home journal' in 1921 but the ad is restricted in explaining the products use.
TP-1920 Northern Mills introduces toilet tissue on a roll and claims to be the largest producer of bath tissue in the world.
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1924 Kleenex is introduced by Cellucotton and first marketed to women as a disposable towel to use when removing cold cream. (In 1930 the marketing changed to be 'a disposable handkerchief' instead of a cold cream remover). Cold cream was commonly used to protect their skin while riding in the open convertibles. Most of the six million autos were open touring cars. Because Kotex had a slow start, they had excess capacity in the Kotex facility. They needed to find a use for the Kotex product. The project leader took the heavy creped Kotex material and 'ironed' it to become soft, flat and smooth.
1927 Georgia Pacific founded by Owen R. Cheatham as a wholesale lumber company. By 1941 becomes the largest supplier of lumber to the US armed forces.
1928 Crown Zellerbach is established- and is a forerunner in the paper & pulp industry.
TP-1928 Charmin introduced by Hoberg Paper in Green bay Wisconsin.. The logo was a women's head on a cameo pin. It was designed to appeal to the women's fashions of the day. A female employee remarked that the design was 'charming' and hence the name Charmin was born.
1929 Kleenex in a pop-up dispenser box was introduced.
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TP-1930 Northern is hailed as 'splinter-free' toilet paper.
1931 Scott makes ScotTowels, the first paper roll towel. They market using 'Mr. Thirsty Fibre" for absorbency, wet-strength and economy.
TP-1939 Scott Brand claims to be the largest producer of toilet tissue in the world.
1939 capacity in the US for sulfate pulp was 3,368,460 tons annually. Sulfite pulp capacity was 2,524,950 tons.
TP-1942 two ply toilet tissue- was introduced by St. Andrews Paper Mill in England. Before this toilet tissue was one-ply and not very soft.
Return to Top

1943 Scott launches Scotties facial tissue to compete with Kleenex.
TP-1948 'Fluffy' the Northern cub appears in advertising.
TP-1950's Kimberly Clark introduces Delsey toilet tissue.
TP-1950 Hoberg Company changes name to Charmin Paper Products.
TP-1953 Charmin Baby born and takes the place of the Charmin Lady. In 1956 the "Charmin babies your skin" ad campaign began.
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TP-1953 Marathon Corp buys Northern Mills
TP-1954 Northern introduces colored toilet tissue.
TP-1955 Scott advertises toilet tissue on TV for the first time.
TP-1956 Kimberly Clark advertises Kleenex on TV on the Perry Como show.
TP-1957 Procter and Gamble acquires Charmin Company.
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1957 Georgia Pacific enters paper and pulp business.
1957- American Can buys Marathon Corp (formerly Northern Mills) and Dixie Cup.
TP-1964 Mr. Whipple pushes Charmin & appears for more than 20 years on TV, print and radio. The real Mr. Whipple was the president of the Benton & Bowles advertising agency. He came up with "Please don't squeeze the Charmin" ad campaign. He sold the rights to Procter and Gamble for $1. Dick Wilson was a vaudeville actor that played the part in the TV ad.
Mr. Whipple was the third most recognized name in the US behind Richard Nixon and Billy Graham.
TP-1964 Charmin adds perfume to their one-ply toilet tissue.
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1968 Kimberly Clark introduces disposable diapers named Kimbies. This became Huggies in 1978.
1969- James River Company established in Richmond, Virginia, the James River Valley.
TP-1972 Cottenelle TP is introduced by Kimberly Clark.
TP-1973 Charmin patents process to make paper softer. Through air drying fluffs up the paper instead of the conventional method that squeezes paper flat.
1974- Northern paper towel name changed to Brawny.
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1979 Georgia Pacific acquires Hudson Paper introducing 'Sparkle' brand.
TP-1986 Georgia pacific enters Premium Toilet Tissue market with Angle Soft.
TP-1990 Kleenex Premium TP is introduced.
TP-1992- US Government requires toilet designs flush using much less water. This new design parameter creates a condition where the 'flushability' of toilet paper is important.
TP-1993 Charmin Ultra is introduced as an upgrade. Also, Charmin Plus with Lotion and Aloe is introduced.
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TP-1993 Northern Tissue re-launched as Quilted Northern.
TP-1995 Kimberly Clark and Scott Paper merge.
1995- Watermarked US currency- Crane begins producing watermarked paper for newly redesigned U.S. currency. Lansing E. Crane, sixth generation, named CEO.
1997- James River and Fort Howard merge to become Fort James Corp.
TP- Purely Cotton toilet paper is introduced and made from 100% of cotton and water, no wood. This from a new Seattle based company.
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TP-1999 Charmin introduces new papermaking process. Its 'Structured' papermaking process makes paper softer, more absorbent and stronger.
1999- Paperless toilet is introduced in Japan. It is complete with a washing/rinsing mechanism, a blow-drying component and a heating element.
2000 Georgia pacific acquires Fort James and the brands Brawny, Quilted Northern and Dixie.
TP- 2001 Moist toilet paper- introduced by Kimberly Clark January 16. Cottenelle Fresh Rollwipes are America's first and only dispensable pre-moistened wipe on a roll. Also, that year Charmin purchased Moist Mates, on May 7, claiming to introduce the first pre-moistened bath tissue. They call it Charmin Fresh Mates.
TP- 2003 Annual global sales on toilet tissue exceed $19 billion. The four major attributes are softness, absorbency, strength and value.

kitticat 03-05-2008 04:59 PM

I have learnt that Foetus can do a really long post :D

mrgins 03-05-2008 05:40 PM

never ask foetus a question:eek:

peagle 03-05-2008 07:34 PM

i JUST WASTED HALF AN HOUR OF MY LIFE.... AND THAT WAS JUST SCROLLING PAST THAT THREAD!

hoopsmccan 03-05-2008 07:38 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by kitticat
I have learnt that Foetus can do a really long post :D
...and where is your supermarket avatar?

mrgins 03-05-2008 08:27 PM

I've learned that no one likes me or Piggly Wiggly:sob:

GodstoneEagle 03-05-2008 08:36 PM

I've learnt that no-one likes my piggly-wiggly

Herr Colonpharter 03-05-2008 08:45 PM

If you place your left thumb on your right nipple and touch the bottom rib with your little finger whilst spreadding out your remaining fingers to the right then this is where your liver lives!! amazing eh? :eek:

peagle 03-05-2008 08:48 PM

I like you mrgins!!!

mrgins 03-05-2008 08:52 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by peagle
I like you mrgins!!!
Erm...in what sense, Peagle?

mrgins 03-05-2008 08:53 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by Herr Colonpharter
If you place your left thumb on your right nipple and touch the bottom rib with your little finger whilst spreadding out your remaining fingers to the right then this is where your liver lives!! amazing eh? :eek:
Liver is in aisle three next to lamb cutlets

peagle 03-05-2008 09:19 PM

You can't even take a compliment can you mrgins!

hoopsmccan 03-05-2008 09:24 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by peagle
You can't even take a compliment can you mrgins!
He's not used to it.

peagle 03-05-2008 09:25 PM

I was sooooo tempted to write that!

little al 04-05-2008 06:54 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Herr Colonpharter
If you place your left thumb on your right nipple and touch the bottom rib with your little finger whilst spreadding out your remaining fingers to the right then this is where your liver lives!! amazing eh? :eek:

As its now Sunday, and I have just read this piece of genius, I need learn nothing more for the rest of the day. Many thanks.

mrgins 04-05-2008 11:47 AM

I've learned its pouring outside and I have to coach all day!

little al 04-05-2008 01:55 PM

that we are odds on to make the play offs at 3 0 up half time!!!!!

Maidstoned Eagle 04-05-2008 03:00 PM

That Little Al gets maudlin after 12 cans of Stella.

TAK 04-05-2008 03:26 PM

I've known that for about the last ten years.

Mind you at least he doesn't get his cock out in public or get violent anymore or does he?
























Sometimes it's great being three thousand miles away.


:moo:

little al 04-05-2008 03:58 PM

I have learnt that although beind delirious about todays result, I can be mega depressesd cos my card has been declined to get down for the final. I am inconsolable at the moment.

foetus eagle 06-05-2008 12:09 AM

I have learned that I suffer from photic sneeze reflex.

PeterH 06-05-2008 02:41 AM

I have learnt that trying to fly home for a potential play off final will be prohibitively expensive.

Hedgehog 06-05-2008 02:42 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by foetus eagle
I have learned that I suffer from photic sneeze reflex.
I do that!

Hedgehog 06-05-2008 02:43 AM

I have learnt that real work can be a stimulus, and that an engaging boss is priceless.

Stickyfingers 06-05-2008 03:15 AM

There is a sport called 'Ice Cricket'

Psychokiller 06-05-2008 10:02 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Hedgehog
I do that!
Me too. I thought everyone did!

west country boy 06-05-2008 10:05 AM

Quote:

Originally posted by Psychokiller
Me too. I thought everyone did!
Yeah, me too.

Today I have learnt that Armando Iannucci is apparently responsible for both the Post Office and Nationwide adverts.

mrgins 06-05-2008 10:04 PM

Today I learned you shouldn't fall asleep at the wheel when you're doing 70mph

Eaglettie 06-05-2008 10:15 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by mrgins
Today I learned you shouldn't fall asleep at the wheel when you're doing 70mph
:eek: :eek: Please say you didn't crash???

Today I have learned if you want something doing you're best off doing it yourself!!!

Lizzy 06-05-2008 10:17 PM

Today I have learnt that I shouldn't volunteer for some many sports related committees.

the digger 06-05-2008 10:35 PM

today i have learnt that surfing can be good for a bad nack

MicksSis 07-05-2008 01:08 PM

Today I have learnt that not being able to read the BBS General Chit Chat forum in the normal way is really, really frustrating.:grrr:

PalaceMonkey 07-05-2008 01:12 PM

i have learnt that I am aces at darts.

Dobbo 07-05-2008 01:20 PM

I have learnt that Greenland is owned by Denmark (which is a fiftieth of the size), but might soon be granted independance.

E_girl 07-05-2008 03:38 PM

That my work has a patio roof garden thingy

lanepe 07-05-2008 03:42 PM

Today I have learnt that Hitler was not a vegetarian

little al 07-05-2008 03:48 PM

Today I have learnt that George Michael and Nick Kershaw sang backing vocals on Elton Johns "Nikita"

Dorking .Eagle 07-05-2008 03:53 PM

I learnt how to fold the rear seats of my car forward (before taking rubbish to the tip)

nathe 07-05-2008 03:56 PM

I've learnt that old people don't know how to use computers

Psychokiller 07-05-2008 03:58 PM

That PL can go almost a month before having an online public nervous breakdown

little al 07-05-2008 04:14 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by Dorking .Eagle
I learnt how to fold the rear seats of my car forward (before taking rubbish to the tip)
:D

Eye-dee 07-05-2008 04:19 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by nathe
I've learnt that old people don't know how to use computers
Ahem.

little al 20-05-2008 07:27 PM

I have just learnt that SUV stands for Sporty Utility Vehicle.

kitticat 20-05-2008 07:42 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by little al
I have just learnt that SUV stands for Sporty Utility Vehicle.
I didn't know that either :)

Chester 20-05-2008 07:44 PM

Close enough

Quote:

Originally posted by Chester
Sports Utility Vehicle
:D

little al 20-05-2008 07:45 PM

Whoops!!

cupid stunt 20-05-2008 07:47 PM

Oh, the more we get together,
Together, together,
Oh, the more we get together,
The happier we'll be.

For your friends are my friends,
And my friends are your friends.
Oh, the more we get together,
The happier we'll be!

kitticat 20-05-2008 07:53 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by cupid stunt
Oh, the more we get together,
Together, together,
Oh, the more we get together,
The happier we'll be.

For your friends are my friends,
And my friends are your friends.
Oh, the more we get together,
The happier we'll be!

Nooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooo!!!

They're gonna taste Great,
They're gonna taste Great......... :D

cupid stunt 20-05-2008 07:56 PM

They are going to taste great, but i didn`t learn that today, but today i did learn that the more we get together together together, the more we get together the happier we`ll be! :D

Sprite 20-05-2008 08:08 PM

I have learnt that creating a giant whale with a class of 30 children aged 7-8 is not possible and is a very noisy affair.

little al 20-05-2008 08:27 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by cupid stunt
They are going to taste great, but i didn`t learn that today, but today i did learn that the more we get together together together, the more we get together the happier we`ll be! :D
You bastard. I hate that ad.

cupid stunt 20-05-2008 08:39 PM

I think it`s quite catchy :D

cupid stunt 20-05-2008 08:40 PM

I have learnt today that not everyone shares my enthusiasm for the fact that the more we get together together together, the more we get together the happier we`ll be.

Eaglettie 20-05-2008 08:49 PM

I have learnt today that salad stuff from the little green-grocer market man is tons cheaper than the supermarkets.

little al 20-05-2008 08:50 PM

Quote:

Originally posted by cupid stunt
I have learnt today that not everyone shares my enthusiasm for the fact that the more we get together together together, the more we get together the happier we`ll be.
Please refer to this thread.

http://forums.cpfc.org/showthread.ph...hreadid=169974

cupid stunt 20-05-2008 08:54 PM

:o


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